Which One is the Sinner?

Posted: April 26, 2015 in John

John 7:53-8:11, “Which One is the Sinner?”

People love a good plot twist.  Some of the most interesting movies to watch you can only watch once because the plot turns at the end & the entire story gets turned upside down.  Of course, that’s what makes it good: the hero is really the villain, and the true hero is unexpected.

There is quite the plot twist in the story that opens up John 8.  There is one who is brought to Jesus as a sinner, while others hold her guilt over her.  Which one is the sinner, and which is the saint?  In the end, there is only One righteous person among them, and He extended mercy to the one whom everyone knew was outrageously guilty.  The plot is twisted as the religious sulk off having their sin exposed, and the sinner has an offer of forgiveness handed to her by the Son of God.

It’s one of the most famous accounts in the gospel of John, and yet it seems to be the greatest story in the gospel of John that John never wrote.  At least, that’s the debate.  Depending on the Bible translation you’re reading, you likely have some sort of footnote or marking that that sets this section of Scripture apart from the rest.  The NKJV says in the margin at 7:53, “NU brackets 7:53 through 8:11 as not in the original text.  They are present in over 900 mss of John.”  (NU = the text used with the Nestle-Aland and UBS editions of the Greek NT.)  Commentaries and study Bibles go even further.  The notes of the NET Bible say, “This entire section, 7:53–8:11, traditionally known as the pericope adulterae, is not contained in the earliest and best mss and was almost certainly not an original part of the Gospel of John. Among modern commentators and textual critics, it is a foregone conclusion that the section is not original but represents a later addition to the text of the Gospel.”

Why are scholars so convinced?  First of all, the section is missing from the vast majority of the most ancient manuscripts that range between the 3rd and 10th centuries.  In the manuscripts in which it is found, there are several variations in wording and placement within the book of John itself.  One variant even has the passage found in the book of Luke, and some scholars argue that the style of writing and vocabulary much more closely fits Luke than it does John.  Even the manuscripts that contain the passage generally contain certain scribal markings that indicate that those who copied the text were not sure of its authenticity.

That’s not to say the passage was unknown.  On the contrary, it was known throughout the empire, though not many Church Fathers wrote commentaries on it.  References to the passage go to the 3rd century, possibly earlier than that with a potential reference from the 1st century (though that reference is ambiguous).  So the story was known, even if the original source was uncertain.

So if John didn’t write the passage and scholars both ancient and modern conclude that it was a later addition, why study it?  Why to our Bibles even contain it?  Surely we need a better reason than sentimental value (i.e. it’s always been there, so don’t take it out now).  After all, we’re talking about the most important book in history.  If there is any book we need to ensure is historically accurate, it’s the Bible.  So why keep the passage in John?  Because it’s true.

John may not have written the account, but that doesn’t mean the account is false.  What most likely happened regarding John 7:53-8:11 is that this is an accurate oral tradition regarding Jesus that the church (meaning the people of God; not an organization) recognized as true, and later saw the need to record it in the pages of the Bible.  Keep in mind that at some point, all of the stories of Jesus were orally transmitted.  The Gospel of Mark, for example, is basically a record of the recollections of Peter.  Peter taught it orally in Rome (and elsewhere) and Mark was the one to compile it all and write it down.  The Gospel of Luke is another example.  Luke was not an eyewitness of Jesus, but he interviewed eyewitnesses of Jesus, and then wrote his compiled historical account based on what he was told.  Oral histories were the norm for at least the first 20-30 years of the church, before any of the Gospels were written.  So to have an additional oral history of Jesus that wasn’t originally penned by a disciple isn’t all that unusual.  Even John himself wrote that his account of Jesus was only partial, and that all the libraries in the world could not contain the things that Jesus said and did. (Jn 21:25)

So this is an event that did happen; it’s just likely an event that John personally recorded.  Because of that, we don’t want to base any new doctrine solely off this one passage.  We would also want to ensure that whatever interpretation we come to from the text doesn’t contradict any other Scripture elsewhere.  And thankfully, there is nothing about this passage that is the slightest bit contradictory.  It doesn’t show us anything new about Jesus, but rather illustrates certain aspects of His character that are frequently shown in the New Testament.

All in all, we can read and teach this passage with confidence.  If God had not intended us as a church to read this in our Bibles, we can know that God would not have allowed the historical church preserve this text…it would have fallen into the dustbin of history.  God performed a miracle not only in inspiring the words of the Bible, but also in preserving them for us today.

John 7:53–8:11
53 And everyone went to his own house. 1 But Jesus went to the Mount of Olives.

  1. Although it sounds as if John is simply continuing in his narrative, picking up from the immediate context of Jesus’ appearance and teaching at the Feast of Tabernacles, remember that if John didn’t originally write this, we don’t really know when it happened or what the preceding context was.  What we do know is that Jesus was apparently in Jerusalem at the time, and that He had some sort of encounter with the people of the city.  It certainly could have been the Feast of Tabernacles, but we just don’t know.
  2. Whatever the preceding events, the people of Jerusalem all when to their homes, but Jesus went outside the city gates to the Mount of Olives that was immediately next door.  Perhaps He camped out – perhaps He spent the night in prayer.  The disciples are not mentioned as being with Him, but it’s possible that they were there.  But the striking thing is that Jesus did not stay inside Jerusalem.  Just as He would do later on at the Passover prior to His crucifixion, Jesus would enter the city during the day, but stay elsewhere overnight.  Jesus was a frequent visitor to Jerusalem, but He did not have a home there.
    1. How ironic is it that the one city on earth that might possibly make a legitimate claim of being the city of God did not actually have God Incarnate reside within its walls?  Jesus visited Jerusalem, but He wasn’t truly welcome there.  Some Jews believed in Him, but most did not.  They claimed to be the children of God, but they could not (would not) recognize the Son of God when He stood right in front of them.
    2. Something similar might be said of many who claim to be Christian, and even of whole churches.  They claim Christianity, in that they aren’t Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, or another major religion.  They have a cross on the wall and some Christian traditions – but Jesus Himself isn’t really welcome.  They like some ideas about Christianity, but they don’t really want Jesus Christ to truly be Lord. 
    3. If Jesus isn’t welcome in your life, then He isn’t in your life.  If He isn’t at home in your heart, then He isn’t the Lord of your heart.  The true temple of God is where God chooses to reside.  He does that with true born-again Christians.  (Does He do it with you?)

2 Now early in the morning He came again into the temple, and all the people came to Him; and He sat down and taught them.

  1. Jesus did not have a home within the city walls of Jerusalem, but there was one particular house in which He could often be found: the house of God.  This is one aspect about this particular event that has much in common with the rest of John’s Gospel: Jesus taught at the temple.  If there is one thing that Jesus did often (if not daily), it was to teach the things of God.  The Bible contains only a few partial transcripts and summaries, but be assured Jesus engaged in teaching far more than He did with healings and other miracles.  Teaching was the norm for Jesus.  It is what He saw as most important prior to the cross and resurrection.
    1. How important is the word of God to you?  How important is the infinite truth of the gospel?  Praise God for the miracles that Jesus performed (and still performs today), but Jesus was not primarily in the miracle ministry.  He performed many signs, but Jesus was not primarily a worker of signs and wonders.  Some people today chase the miracles and they want to see signs, because they believe that when they do, that’s when they experience Jesus.  If we truly want to experience Jesus, then we must first go where He primarily reveals Himself: the Bible.  If we want to know our Savior better, then we need to take in what our Savior did most often: receive the teaching of the word of God.
  2. So this is what Jesus did on a normal basis.  It’s the normalcy of it all that seems to be the point of 8:2.  When the Pharisees come looking for Jesus, they know where to find Him.  He’s doing what He always did when in Jerusalem: teach the word of God about the gospel of the kingdom.

3 Then the scribes and Pharisees brought to Him a woman caught in adultery. And when they had set her in the midst, 4 they said to Him, “Teacher, this woman was caught in adultery, in the very act.

  1. Verse 2 said that this took place “early in the morning,” basically a reference to daybreak.  The scribes and Pharisees wasted no time in bringing the woman to Jesus.  They were eager for blood that day!
  2. She had been “caught in adultery, in the very act.”  There is something smarmy about all of this, as if the Pharisees and scribes were peeping-toms looking for someone to take down.  They had caught her in “the very act” of her sin, almost implying that they drug the woman to Jesus half-dressed and highly humiliated.
    1. Sin isn’t pretty.  It’s neither fun nor flattering.  It tries to sell itself otherwise, and it may be fun for the 30 seconds or so of thrill, but it always leaves a person empty.  It always leaves someone unsatisfied.  That’s why we have to go back again & again, and get more & more involved.  Soon, just a “little” sin won’t cut it anymore.  It is increased to the point that it’s all consuming, and it ravages us.  That’s just what sin does.
  3. You may have noticed that the group is rather incomplete.  The scribes and Pharisees had found this woman in the very act of adultery and brought her to Jesus, but where is the man?  To be sure, it’s possible to commit adultery in our hearts by gazing upon someone in lust, but the precise act of adultery requires a precise minimum number of people (i.e. more than one).  A lone woman cannot commit the physical act of adultery on her own – another participant is required.  Yet where is he?  The Pharisees had brought the woman, but not the man.  It all underscores the idea that the whole arrangement was a setup.  The scribes and Pharisees tried to arrange a sting.  They weren’t interested in justice; they wanted to take down Jesus (as will be clear in vs. 6).  The woman was simply a convenient pawn that fit their needs.

5 Now Moses, in the law, commanded us that such should be stoned. But what do You say?”

  1. On this they were correct, to a point.  Deuteronomy 22:22, "If a man is found lying with a woman married to a husband, then both of them shall die—the man that lay with the woman, and the woman; so you shall put away the evil from Israel."  Yes, Moses did command death by stoning, but the law specifically commands both the man and woman to die.  The Pharisees’ appeal to Moses only underscores their own duplicity and deceit in bringing the woman alone to Jesus.
  2. That said, why?  Adultery is a terrible sin to be sure, but why would it be punishable by death?  To our ears, this sounds overly harsh.  If people in America received capital punishment for every instance of adultery, our population would be drastically lower (sad to say)!  We need to remember a couple of things:
    1. First, this is a law given to the nation of Israel; not the church.  God had a special use for the law with Israel, in that it was meant to highlight God’s perfection and the people’s lack of it.  They had the law, but they could never keep it.  It was supposed to demonstrate their need for a Savior and utter dependence upon God, and the blood continually sacrificed for them.  God’s law was perfectly holy, just as God is perfectly holy.  His standard of perfection was the standard given to them. (Keep that in mind for later.)
    2. Second, death is actually the appropriate punishment for adultery…just as it is for any and all sin.  The wages of sin is death (Rom 6:23), and that applies for everyone.  Again, God Himself is the standard.  What doesn’t match His perfection violates His standard, and what is willfully done against Him is an act of rebellion against the Creator God.  That means the appropriate punishment for sin is death.  Death was the punishment for the very first sin in humanity that took place in the Garden of Eden, and it remains the punishment for every sin that follows.
    3. But there is good news in that Jesus has defeated death!  When He went to the cross, Jesus died the death we deserve because of our sin, and in His resurrection, He offers us life and forgiveness!  Yes, the Law demonstrates how we truly have earned death, but that is when we turn to Christ and find love, grace, forgiveness, and eternal life!
  3. Despite the Pharisees’ disregard for the specificity of the law, they throw it in Jesus’ face.  They basically say, “The law requires death; what are You going to do about it?”  They taunt Jesus with the law as though it’s a hammer or plaything.  They thought they could wield it however they wished; they didn’t realize they were taunting the One who wrote it!

6 This they said, testing Him, that they might have something of which to accuse Him. But Jesus stooped down and wrote on the ground with His finger, as though He did not hear.

  1. Again, they didn’t care about truth or justice; they wanted to trap Jesus.  They were hoping to back Jesus into a corner, so that they could “accuse Him.”  If Jesus restrained them from stoning, they could accuse Jesus of being a lawbreaker.  If Jesus gave permission to proceed, they could accuse His reputation among the people.  After all, who would follow a cold-hearted compassionless Messiah?  The Pharisees believed they had Jesus over a barrel.
  2. Jesus has two reactions to the accusers.  The first is basically nothing.  He ignores them.  He “stooped down” to the ground, not confronting the mob of religious leaders – not going toe-to-toe with them.  Jesus had no need to escalate the tension.  Why? (1) Jesus could have simply blinked them out of existence; it’s not as if He was actually intimidated by them.  (2) There was still a highly humiliated woman in the midst.  The Pharisees and scribes were creating enough of a scene on their own.  Jesus didn’t need to add to it.
  3. The other thing Jesus did while He ignored the Pharisees was to write upon the ground.  What it was that Jesus wrote has been the subject of endless speculation.  Some have suggested that Jesus wrote the section of Deuteronomy 22 that the Pharisees ignored.  Others have suggested He wrote out the law concerning bearing false witness.  At least one of the textual variants of this passage states that Jesus wrote out some of their sins.  Ultimately we don’t (and can’t) know…the Scripture is silent.  Jesus could have simply doodled on the ground for all we know.
    1. My personal opinion: I believe Jesus wrote out the 10 Commandments.  It’s impossible to honestly evaluate ourselves in light of the 10 Commandments and claim sinless innocence.  We have all broken several (if not all 10) of the Commandments in either the act or intent.  In addition, the only other example of God writing with His finger was when the 10 Commandments were originally given to Moses.  At that time it was in the rock; this time it was in the dust.  (But again, it’s all speculation.)
  4. The emphasis in the account itself is not the content of what Jesus wrote (which isn’t said), but in the act of writing.  Here are the scribes and Pharisees, all hyped up looking to accuse Jesus, and Jesus is the very model of restraint.  He is complete control of the situation as He calmly writes upon the ground.
    1. Don’t underestimate the power of self-control!  We too often allow other dictate to us how we respond to a situation.  We don’t have to.  WE choose how we respond.  We can stop a situation from getting worse, many times by doing nothing more than controlling our words.  Like our Lord Jesus, we can be known as peacemakers.

7 So when they continued asking Him, He raised Himself up and said to them, “He who is without sin among you, let him throw a stone at her first.” 8 And again He stooped down and wrote on the ground.

  1. Frustrated with the seeming-lack of response they received from Jesus, the Pharisees kept on asking & asking.  The Greek tense implies that it was continual.  Like a dripping faucet, they just wouldn’t stop.  Finally, Jesus gives His second response to them, with something they could not possibly have expected: a righteous rebuttal of their trap.  Jesus quickly and clearly exposed their own sin and hypocrisy and suddenly the tables were all turned around.
  2. How did He do it?  Jesus went back to the supreme standard of God: perfection.  The law of God did not command holiness from only a select few in certain situations; the law of God commanded holiness from allLeviticus 19:1–2, "(1) And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, (2) “Speak to all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘You shall be holy, for I the LORD your God am holy."  What was the standard of holiness for the Hebrews?  God, i.e. perfection.  To be holy as God is holy is to be perfectly holy – something that is was impossible for any and all of them.  Each of them had broken the law at some point, and they knew it.
  3. Jesus’ response to the Pharisees is the right use of the law.  The law can be used rightly or wrongly.  The Pharisees attempted to use the law as a hammer (a wrong use) – they tried to use it for their own gain and opposition of Jesus (a wrong use) – they tried to use it to heap condemnation upon the adulteress (a wrong use).  We are not to use the law as a means of condemnation; the perfect standard of the law condemns us already.  It doesn’t need any help from us!  To use the law in condemnation is only to bring the condemnation back upon ourselves.  Jesus didn’t use the law to condemn, but to convict.  All He did was hold up the standard, and the law did the rest.  After He did that, He didn’t need to say anything else – He just went back to writing in the dirt (perhaps continuing the list of 10 Commandments).
  4. An honest look at the perfect law of God is all we need in order to understand the sinfulness of our own sin & our need for Jesus.  The law teaches us what sin is (Rom 7:7).  At the same time, it also brings death, since those who hear the law understand that they’ve broken it (Rom 7:9-10).  So what is the result?  The law shows us we are condemned apart from God, which ought to drive us to our knees and ask God for grace.  And that is the very reason God sent Jesus to die for us on the cross and rise again.  This is why Paul could write to the Galatians that the law is our tutor to bring us to Christ (Gal 3:24).  THAT is the correct, lawful use of the law…which is exactly how Jesus used it.
  5. Take note of one other thing here: Jesus does not debate the woman’s guilt.  He never once says, “She’s innocent, so leave her alone!”  Jesus is fully aware of her guilt; He was simply making the Pharisees aware of their own.  They were just as guilty as she was, though the specific nature of their sin was different.  They may not have been caught in the very act of adultery, but they each had their own sins before God.  And beyond that, they needed to look no further for their sin than how they treated the woman in this case.  Nothing about what they did was handled according to God’s righteousness.  Their accusations and tests did not uphold the law of God; they made a mockery of it.  Their hypocrisy left them just as guilty as the woman they drug to Jesus.  Jesus would not ignore the sin of the woman, but He would deal with it in His own time according to the true righteousness of God.

9 Then those who heard it, being convicted by their conscience, went out one by one, beginning with the oldest even to the last. And Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.

  1. The scribes and Pharisees were silent in their response.  Jesus’ reply left them dumbfounded and “convicted.”  He had clearly identified their hypocrisy, and deep in their hearts they knew they were in the wrong.  Paul wrote to the Romans saying that even the Gentiles know right from wrong because the law of God is written upon their hearts, and their consciences bear witness of it (Rom 2:15).  Something similar happened in this moment with the Jewish religious leaders.  They had the written law (as opposed to the Gentiles), and once reminded of it they were subject to that same conviction.  The elders among them were the first to recognize it, and as they sulked off in silence they set the example for the rest to follow.
    1. BTW, the conviction of our conscience in regards to sin is a good thing.  Obviously we don’t want to live our entire lives drowning in guilt, but the guilty feeling we have when we fall into sin is good.  It’s like a warning light going off.  It’s a sign that our hearts are not yet fully hardened to the truth of God and the prompting of the Holy Spirit.  We ought to feel remorse when we sin against the God who created us, loves us, and saved us.  If we got to a point that we take His forgiveness for granted and are callous towards sin, watch out!  THAT is the danger to beware!  It is to those people that they Bible warns to examine themselves to ensure they truly are in the faith (2 Cor 13:5); not the believer with a stricken remorseful heart.
    2. That said, once you understand your guilt, deal with it.  Let that guilt take you once again to the cross, and then be done with it.  1 John 1:9, "If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness."  He offers to cleanse us from guilt and unrighteousness…let Him!
  2. So can you imagine it?  For this woman, there has been nonstop drama since before the break of day.  Who knows how long she had been in the Pharisees’ custody?  Whether it was all night or just the past hour, no doubt her life had flashed before her eyes.  One moment she had the false security of her sin (and sin almost always breeds false security), and the next moment she was cast about, wondering when the first stone would strike her face.  But after just a few minutes in the presence of Jesus, everything changed.  She went from chaos to peace in no time, and now found herself alone with her Savior.  What did she expect next?  What would Jesus do?  Surely she had no idea. 

10 When Jesus had raised Himself up and saw no one but the woman, He said to her, “Woman, where are those accusers of yours? Has no one condemned you?” 11 She said, “No one, Lord.” And Jesus said to her, “Neither do I condemn you; go and sin no more.”

  1. Jesus finally “raised Himself up.”  Remember that He had stooped to the ground earlier – seemingly not giving the hypocritical Pharisees the time of day.  But now He raises Himself up and addresses the woman directly the dignity as befits a human being created in the image of God.  He asked her to assess her own situation.  Where were her accusers – where was her condemnation?  There had been none…at least not yet.  We can almost hear the fear and hesitancy in her voice.  Yet there was no need.
  2. The one person who could have cast a stone at her declined to do so.  Jesus was the only One present without sin – not only in regards to the immediate situation, but throughout His whole life.  Jesus lived a perfect, sinless life.  He was supremely holy, and the only one who ever truly measured up to the standard of God.  He had the right to cast the first stone, but He didn’t do it.  Instead, He extended His mercy.  He did not condemn her because He hadn’t come to condemn, but to save.  John 3:17–18, "(17) For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. (18) “He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God."  To this point, the woman was already condemned.  Her sin had seen to that.  Jesus was not going to condemn her further; He was giving her the opportunity to believe and be saved.  If she continued to sin, there is no doubt she would eventually face Jesus for judgment, but this was not that day.  This was her opportunity to experience the compassion and grace of God, and to turn her life over to Jesus as her Lord.
  3. Again, Jesus doesn’t deny nor excuse her sin.  He fully recognizes it for what it is.  It was indeed sin, and thus He commanded her to “sin no more.”  He called her to forsake her lifestyle of sin and walk differently in the future.  IOW, Jesus called to her repentance.  One of the reasons that some people have criticized and doubted this passage over the centuries is because they thought it showed Jesus being soft on sin.  Not at all!  Jesus never once ignores her sin.  He expressly tells her to turn away from it and repent.
    1. If there is anyone “soft” on sin, it isn’t Jesus.  All too often, it’s the church.  We even shy away from words like “sin” and “repentance.”  People make the excuse: “To say such a thing as ‘sin’ exists is to say that someone might be doing something evil and wrong, and that would be offensive.  How could was pass judgment like that?  Didn’t Jesus just call out the Pharisees for judging?”  Talk about missing the point!  First of all, yes sin exists and people engage in outright evil every single day.  How someone could look at murder, rape, and Islamic terrorism such as ISIS and not term it “evil” is beyond comprehension.  There is no doubt evil exists & dwells in the hearts of men.  This sin (and ALL sin) is the very reason Jesus went to the cross.  Sin IS offensive, but it is offensive to God.  It’s so offensive that His Son had to die in order to resolve it. 
    2. Secondly, just because the Pharisees were hypocritical in their unjust condemnation of this woman does not mean that she had not sinned, nor that her sin should not have been exposed and dealt with.  It just needed to be done in a righteous, God-honoring way.  There is a way to deal with sin within a church that not only addresses the need for repentance, but also lovingly seeks for the sinner to be restored to God.  But the bottom line is that sin does need to be addressed, and Jesus addressed it perfectly.
  4. What Jesus commanded the woman is what He commands to all who follow Him as Lord: “go and sin no more.”  Repent!  Live a lifestyle of repentance and holiness.  Follow Christ in faith, walking in obedience.  Will we still fall and fail?  Without question.  But confess it, deal with it, and start anew.  Be continually filled with the Holy Spirit, asking God for His help and power, and then go and walk differently.  Leave those past sins in the past, and walk as the new, clean, forgiven men and women of God that He has made you to be!

Which one was the sinner?  They all were…everyone but Jesus.

The Pharisees had set this woman up to fail, and they and their best to test and trap the Son of God.  But it couldn’t be done.  They used the law unlawfully, and found themselves as the lawbreakers instead.  The Giver of the Law cannot be trapped by it, and Jesus not only used it to expose the sins of the Pharisees, but to call the one person who couldn’t deny her sin to a point of repentance.  What starts out so awful becomes a beautiful account of compassion and mercy.  James writes that “mercy triumphs over judgment,” (Jas 2:13) and it is amply demonstrated here.

So where are you in this story?  Maybe you’re like the woman in that you’ve been lured in the false security of sin, but have found the covers ripped off and suddenly everything has been exposed.  Even if no one else has seen it, you’ve suddenly seen your sin for the shame that it is, and you understand that without the mercy of God you have no hope.  Know this: there is forgiveness at the foot of the cross!  God is a holy & righteous God, but He is also the merciful and gracious God.  The proof of God’s abundant mercy is found in Jesus Himself.  You too can find forgiveness and cleansing when you confess your sins to Christ, and forsake those things in repentance.

Maybe you’re more like the Pharisees and scribes.  You’ve been so consumed with the sins of others that you haven’t bothered to look at the corruption in your own life.  As Jesus taught in the Sermon on the Mount, you’ve been looking to take a splinter out of someone else’s eye, when you’ve got a 2×4 board in your own eye.  Keep in mind that you won’t be answering for anyone else’s sins when standing before God in judgment; you’ll be answering for your own.  Let the light of God’s word shine upon your life, and recognize your own sin before God.  The Pharisees walked away that day, but they could have also asked Jesus for forgiveness.  The same offer that Jesus gave to the woman would have been given to any who asked.  It’s available to us, too.

For many of us, we’ve already received our salvation from Jesus – but it’s easy to start walking in the footsteps of the Pharisees afterwards.  We need to pray that God would keep us humble, fully mindful of our own sin, and seeking to walk in the same compassion and grace as our Savior.


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